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It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru.With a population of more than 10 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua.
Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.
Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World.
It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area.